Aortic aneurysm

Aortic Aneurysm treatment and Stents placement 2023

The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the human body and is considered the main artery that carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body, so if an aneurysm occurs in the abdominal aorta, it is likely to cause bleeding that may threaten human life.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its complications: 
An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common disease, especially in men over the age of sixty, and this disease affects about 5% of men and 2% of women at this age. This disease is called the silent killer, as it often grows slowly without noticeable symptoms until the rupture of an aneurysm occurs, so it may lead to sudden death in 80% of aneurysm cases, and only 20% can survive.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm are classified according to their size and how quickly the aneurysm grows, and these are the two main factors that help to predict the symptoms of an aneurysm. 

Types of aortic aneurysm:
- If the aneurysm is less than 5 cm, it is less dangerous than an aneurysm larger than this. So doctors sometimes consider it is safer to monitor the most common symptoms by doing regular ultrasound on the abdomen rather than treating them. 
- If the aneurysm is greater than 5 cm, it is more likely to rupture the artery, which may lead to internal bleeding and other serious complications. 

Surgical solutions for advanced cases: 
There are surgical solutions for advanced cases of this disease to prevent its rupture, such as the stent surgery to reduce pressure on the walls of the arteries, maintain blood flow to the limbs, and it is installed by making a small opening in the thigh to insert the catheter and stents, after that, the patient does not need to stay in the hospital for long periods, and he can return to his normal life, but after installing that stent for a month, the patient should make a CT scan with dye on the abdomen and pelvis to make sure that the stent is working properly, also the patient should make periodic follow-up every year.

What are the causes of aortic aneurysm? 
Many causes lead to an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and the expansion of its diameter such as: 
- If there is atherosclerosis due to the accumulation of fat on the walls of the arteries of the body, which leads to the weakness and expansion of the arterial wall. 
- The presence of infections or bacteria in the aorta. 
- Genetic factors such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos, and Turner syndrome, which lead to weakness of the arterial wall.

Other factors that increase the risk of the abdominal aortic aneurysm: 
- Smoking. 
- Excess weight and fat accumulation.
- Increased level of cholesterol in the blood. 
- Syphilis disease. 
- Hypertension. 

Complications of aortic aneurysm: 
An artery wall rupture is a serious condition and it requires immediate emergency, as it may cause internal bleeding, so if you feel severe pain in the abdomen or back, low blood pressure, and rapid pulse rate, you should go to the hospital as fast as you can. 

How to prevent aortic aneurysm?
To prevent this disease, you must know the causes, and the risk factors, and you should work to avoid them to prevent this disease.
The most effective steps of prevention, that you should follow:
- Avoid smoking.
- Eat healthy foods. 
- Controls the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood. 
- Do exercise regularly. 
- It is recommended that everyone over the age of 60, especially men, should do an ultrasound examination to determine the size of the aorta every 5 years. 

How is an aortic aneurysm diagnosed, and what are the treatment methods? 
Aortic aneurysm disease is diagnosed by doing chest and abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, which can be done to identify the diameter of the aneurysm in the arteries or doing a CT scan, which is one of the best ways to diagnose aortic aneurysm, because it accurately determines the location and extent of the expansion in the arteries, also Dr.Waleed El-Daly, the best vascular surgeon, stresses on the need for early detection of the presence of the aneurysm before the patient is exposed to the risk of arterial rupture or high blood pressure.

The treatment method for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on the size of the aneurysm and its location in the arteries: 
- Drug treatment: If the aneurysm is small, the doctor prescribes some medications that regulate blood pressure, medications to regulate heartbeat, and medications that reduce cholesterol levels in the blood, but some cases need surgical intervention to treat the problem before the rupture of the arteries. 
-Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm with stent placement: It is a stent covered with polytetrafluoroethylene, and there are metal hooks to fix the stent to the wall of the arteries, and the stent can be installed in about 75% of cases of the aneurysm to maintain blood flow to the limbs.